Sunday, August 10, 2008

Fats (Yaglar)

Saturated Fats
Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature. They are primarily found in animal products such as butter, milk, cream, and lard. Some plant foods, such as palm oil, coconut oil, vegetable shortening, and some peanut butters have large amounts of these fats. They have been known to increase blood cholesterol levels.

Unsaturated Fats

They are found mostly in plant-based foods. They are generally liquid at room temperature. Sunflower oil, corn oil, olive, peanut and other nuts, etc.

*Polyunsaturated Fats
Polyunsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature and tend to lower blood cholesterol levels. Fats such as sunflower oil, corn oil, and soft margarines have large amounts of polyunsaturated fats.

*Monounsaturated Fats

They can be liquid or solid at room temperature, and can be found both in plant or animal sources. Olive, peanut, and canola oils are high in this fat. Monounsaturated fats have been shown to decrease cholesterol levels. The healthiest cooking oils are olive oil and canola.

Trans-Fatty Acids

Fats produced when hydrogen is added to liquid vegetable oil, turning it into a solid fat. Found in shortening, stick margarine, doughnuts and other baked goods.

Health Tips (Saglik Bilgileri)

***Tomato is a very good source of lycopene, which is a very powerful antioxidant.

***The immediate contact of the tea leaves with boiled water would lose the Vitamin C and affect the minerals in it. Also boiled water damages the tannin material and it causes anemia.To prevent this situations wash the tea leaves in the brewer or wet them with 1-2 tbsp of cold water.

***Strawberry has a protein which effects the serotonin hormone and this hormones make feel happy. Also it lessens the stress and appetite.

***Eating raw onions kills the bacteria in your teeth and mouth.

***Yogurt, apricot, plum and olive oil prevents and helps to cure the constipation.

For more inspiration and resources, online classes in nutrition are available

Protection of Nutrition and Vitamin Values (Besin ve Vitamin Degerlerinin Korunmasi)

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***To prevent the Vitamin loss while preparing green salads, do not use knife to cut them in pieces, try to use your hands for lettuce, parsley and etc.

***To drain the pasta and egg noodles will lead to a decrease in nutrition value. While cooking them, add the exact amount of water, which evaporates, like in pilaf. So, you will cook more nutritious pasta and egg noodles.

*** Do not consume raw egg. Its digestion is difficult and a food borne disease can occur, also the biotin, from the group of Vitamin B will be damaged.

***You should boil the eggs for maximum 6-8 minutes. Otherwise, the green layer on the surface of the egg proves the loss of the nutrition loss.

*** Do not thaw the frozen vegetables before cooking. By this way you will use the maximum nutrition value.

***The immediate contact of the tea leaves with boiled water would lose the Vitamin C and affect the minerals in it. Also boiled water damages the tannin(tanen) material and it causes anemia(kansizlik).To prevent this situations wash the tea leaves in the brewer or wet them with 1-2 tbsp of cold water.

***Make sure you make your salad maximum 30 minutes before serving. Because chopped vegetables starts losing the vitamins, especially Vitamin C, when they contact with air after 30 minutes.

***Vitamin C, is destroyed by the oxygen in the air, heat and sun light in 30 minutes of contact. Consume your fruit juices or sliced fruits as soon as possible. And store them far from the sun light and heat.

***Try to consume broccoli without cooking. Cooking or boiling destroys the vitamins and minerals in it.

Food Safety (Gidalarin Guvenligi)

***Cross Contamination is the physical movement or transfer of harmful bacteria from one person, object or place to another. It is a key factor in food borne illness (food poisoning), and it’s common sources are: food, people, equipment and work surfaces.
Make sure:

* thoroughly washing hands after handling raw foods, especially raw meats,
* using separate cutting boards and food contact surfaces for raw and cooked / pre-cooked and pre-prepared foods,
* not to make contact between raw and cooked/pre-cooked and pre-prepared foods
* not placing bulk food containers on bench surfaces,
* using correct sanitation procedures for all utensils and equipment,
* that cleaning cloths are single service or are adequately sanitized,
* keep raw foods and ready to eat foods separate.

*** High Risk Foods are those perishable foods which can support the growth of harmful bacteria and are intended to be eaten without further treatment such as cooking, which would destroy such organisms.
They include:
* All cooked meat and poultry.
* Cooked meat products including gravy, stock, and roll/sandwich fillings.
* Milk, cream, artificial cream, custards and dairy products.
* Cooked eggs and products made with eggs, eg. mayonnaise.
* Shellfish and other seafood.
* Cooked rice.

***Signs of food spoilage:
* Bad odors (off odors) occur.
* Foods become slimy as the bacterial population grows.
* Foods become discolored by the microbial growth.
* Foods go sour when certain bacteria produce acids.
* Yeasts and bacteria often produce gaseous by- products that can affect food.

***Do not sprinkle the cinnamon right after you pour the rice pudding to the bowls. This would let the microorganisms grow fast contacting the cinnamon with the hot surface of the rice pudding and this may lead to food borne diseases. Make sure you sprinkle the cinnamon just before serving the cooled rice pudding.

***Most probable growth conditions of microorganisms:
* In the presence or absence of oxygen.
* At temperatures between -7 to around 70°C.
* Over a pH range from 0 to 11.
* At water activities above about 0.6. (Spoilage of any particular food will be by the organisms most suited to the conditions in and around that food.)

***While thawing the frozen fish, first leave it in the fridge (4C) for 12 hours, then thaw it at room temperature for 4-5 hours and cook immediately. Make sure you do not leave the frozen fish directly at the room temperature. This would cause the pathogenic organisms to grow and spread over the fish quickly.

***Cooked vegetables can be kept max 4 days and cooked meats 3 days in the fridge.

***Make sure you do not keep cooked or raw fish in your fridge more than 2 days.

***The cold atmosphere in the fridge do not kill the bacteria, it just stop their growth and decrease the infection risk.

***Do not use the frying oil twice; make sure not to consume burnt food. Burnt food and oil contains carcinogenic agents.

***Do not consume raw egg. Its digestion is difficult and a food borne disease can occur, also the biotin, from the group of Vitamin B will be damaged.

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***Hard plastic or glass cutting boards are less porous than wooden cutting boards, so they are the safest for cutting raw poultry, meat, fish and seafood.
Wooden cutting boards can be used for foods like fresh produce, bread, nuts, dried fruits...

***When a cutting board gets deep scratches and cuts, toss it out!

***You should always wash your hands, knife and cutting board thoroughly in the dishwasher or very hot, soapy water after cutting or skinning raw poultry. Do not reuse the knife and cutting board until it has been thoroughly cleaned. Never place cooked poultry on the same platter that you used for your raw poultry. When taking chicken outside to grill, cover a plate with foil, place the raw chicken on top of that, and then remove the foil for after the chicken has been cooked. Use smart food storage techniques to protect yourself from Bacteria in raw chicken.

Many clinical assistant have seen the unhappy results of improper food handling, all of which could have been avoided with a little care and knowledge.

Storing Food ( Gidalarin Saklanmasi)

***Cooked vegetables can be kept max 4 days and cooked meats 3 days in the fridge.

***Make sure you do not keep cooked or raw fish in your fridge more than 2 days.

*** To prevent your pastes from going bad, flatten their surfaces and add some olive oil. This cuts the air contact with the paste and bacteria cannot grow. You can keep the pastes for so long that way.

***The best way to keep fish really fresh is to place the fish in a double plastic bag filled with water and place near the freezer wall. Fish should never be refrozen.

***For dried foods, almost anything can be used as a food storage container, as long as it has a tight fitting lid. Lidded jars or other containers work well, as well as storage bags or plastic containers. Be sure to store the dried food in a dark, cool place to prevent oxidation. Store the food in small batches, and be sure to check weekly for signs of mold for the first several weeks.

***After opening your canned food, replace it to a glass container to keep longer and healthier.

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***To prevent the potatoes crinkle and sprout, place an apple among them. By this way, you will keep them for a long time.

***Bacteria grows most rapidly between 40 degrees F and 140 degrees F. For smart food storage keep foods above or below this range as much as possible.

***Freezing berries is easy. Spread berries out on jelly roll pans in a single layer, making sure the berries are not touching. Freeze until firm. When berries are completely frozen, remove from the pan and place in freezer containers of your choice. Freezing the berries individually means you can remove the amount you want without having them stick together.

***If you are not planning to use nuts immediately, store them in the freezer to preserve their freshness. They will also crack more easily after freezing.

***Freeze baked cookies for months of ready-made snacks. Cooled cookies, double-wrapped in plastic sheets or plastic storage bags will last up to 3 months. To thaw, remove cookies from freezer, unwrap and place them in a single layer on wire racks for 15 to 30 minutes. Store not eaten cookies in a tightly covered container.

***There are three ways you can freeze your onions. Freezing changes the onions texture, so frozen onions should be used only for cooking.
1- Chop and place onions on a cookie sheet in the freezer. When frozen, remove and place in freezer containers or bags, and seal. This allows you to remove the amount you want, when you want.
2- You can also freeze whole onions. Peel, wash, core and place onions in a plastic bag and freeze.
3- You may also slice your onions and saute them in a little butter, cool and then freeze in freezer bags.
Drying: Chop onions and dry in oven using lowest setting and remove when thoroughly dry but not brown. Store at room temperature in airtight container.

***Spice Storage: Always store your herbs and spices away from heat and moisture in an airtight container. This will prevent moisture from collecting in the herbs and causing mold and mildew which are harmful. It will also ensure they stay fresh and that they do not over dry if in extreme heat. The heat and direct sun can also cause bleaching of the herbs. Keep your herbs fresh in taste and sight so you can create the best dish possible. So move your spice cabinet away from heat and sun light.

***Don't let unused bread go to waste. Bread will keep up to 3 weeks in the refrigerator if you wrap it in foil and store it on a low shelf. Also, you can freeze it in the same way and store up to 3 months.

***To store grated cheese; put a teaspoon of baking soda in your container of grated cheese. Shake well before freezing and your cheese will not stick together.

***For storing chicken; marinade in which raw chicken has been soaking should never be used on fully cooked chicken. Thaw frozen chicken in the refrigerator, not in room temperature and on the counter top. Freeze uncooked chicken if it is not going to be used within 2 days.

***To extend the life of a cucumber once it has been cut open, wrap it in a paper towel or aluminum foil and keep it in the vegetable drawer of your refrigerator.

***While storing bananas; you can save ripe bananas for baking later, just mash them and freeze in the amounts needed for your recipes. If you are short on time just put them in the freezer, unpeeled, and when ready to use let them defrost and peel. You barely have to mash them, because they are already very soft.

***For keeping celery fresh for 2 weeks or longer; take it out of the bag it came in, rinse it with water and wrap it in aluminum foil. This will keep it chilled and lasting longer. For crispy celery; dampen a paper towel, wrap it around your celery, and then wrap completely in foil. It will stay crisp in your refrigerator for at least a month.

***For saving sauce; place any extra sauce or broth into a plastic ice cube tray. When they are frozen, pop them out and put them in a ziploc bag for smart food storage. If you measure out the sauce or broth before you freeze it, you won't even have to defrost it when you need to use it, just toss it into the pot.

***You can store apples in the refrigerator and they should be fine to eat for up to 2 months.

***The most effective food storage for tomatoes is in a brown paper bag or closed container. Adding an apple or pear to the container can also hasten ripening. Store the tomatoes in a single layer and with the stem ends up to avoid bruising.

***Expiration dates on milk are usually very conservative. If the milk is properly stored, it should be fine to drink up to a week after the date on the carton.

***The best place to store cheese is in the refrigerator, the closer to the bottom the better, preferably in the vegetable crisper. Hard cheeses will keep in the freezer, tightly wrapped in plastic wrap and aluminum foil, for two to three months. It is best not to store a soft cheese in the freezer. You can store feta cheese in salty water for longer.

***Store uncooked pasta in a tightly sealed package or food storage container in a cool, dry place. Store and use non-egg pasta for up to three years and egg pasta for up to two years.

***Ground meat will keep safely in the refrigerator for only 1 to 2 days. If you don't plan on using it immediately, put it in the freezer where it will keep for 3 months.


Guide to Healthcare Schools is a comprehensive resource for proper food safety

Saturday, August 9, 2008

Brokolinin Faydalari (Benefits of Broccoli)

Brokoli, icerdigi maddeler acisindan insan sagligi uzerinde bir cok olumlu etkiye sahiptir.

* Vitamin degeri acisindan; A, E ve C, Karoten vitaminlerini icermektedir. Demir, Selen, Kalsiyum, Bakir ve Potasyum kaynagidir. Icerdigi flavonoidler bakimindan bagisiklik sistemimizi guclendirir.

* Antibiyotik ozelligine sahip olusu, prostatitis'e (prostat enfeksiyonu) karsi cok etkilidir. Genel olarak antibiyotikler, insan hayati icin hayati onem tasiyan, vazgecilmez ilaclardir, fakat bagisiklik sistemini zayiflatirlar. Brokolinin en onemli ozelligi; hem bagisiklik sistemini guclendirmek, hem de antibiyotik vazifesi gormektir.

* Brokoli; meme, prostat, bagirsak ve idrar kesesi kanserlerine karsi guclu bir koruyucudur. Amerika'da ozellikle bu kanser turlerine karsi brokolinin icerdigi bazi maddeler (Sulforafen, Indol-3-Carbinol, DiIndolMethan v.s.) zenginlestirilerek kanser tedavisinde basari ile kullanilmaktadir.

* Brokoli icerdigi bazi indol ve indol turevleri (bitkisel hormonlar) sayesinde vucudumuzdaki hormon dengesini ayarlayici ozellige sahiptir. Yine Amerika'da bazi klinikler menopoz donemindeki bayanlar icin ostrojen hormonunun duzenli calismasi icin brokolideki bitkisel hormonlardan yararlanmaktadirlar.

* Brokolinin kendine ozgu olan selulozik yapisi (lifli yapi) bagirsaklarda olusan toksinlerin atilmasini saglar ve vucutta bulunan agir metallerin diskiyla disari atilmasinda buyuk rol oynamaktadir.

* Brokolinin lifli yapisi; bagirsaklarin calisma duzeninin dengelenmesine yardim eder ve diskinin duzenli bir sekilde disari atilmasini saglayarak, kabizligi onler.

* Bugun dunyada; hakkinda en cok arastirma yapilan sebzeler: beyaz lahana, turp, domates, brokoli ve havuc ilk siralarda yer almaktadir.

* Brokoli; prostatit, iyi huylu prostat buyumesi, ulser, idrar yollari enfeksiyonuna karsi onleyici ve tedavi edici guce sahiptir.

* Brokoli, ozellikle prostat ve meme kanserine karsi etkin 5 farkli koruyucu madde icermektedir. Bunlardan en guclu olani Sulforafen dir.

* Brokoli ayni zamanda guclu bir antioxidandir. Yani hucre zarlarina (membran) ve hucre DNA'sina zarar veren serbest radikalleri notralize (zararsiz hale getirmek) etmektedir. Hucre DNA sini bozabilen serbest radikaller bu ozelliklerinden dolayi kanserojendirler. Beta-karoten ve C Vitamini, Kalp Hastaliklari, Katarakt ve cesitli kanserlerinde icinde bulundugu bir cok hastaliga yakalanma riskini azaltir.

* Brokolinin fazla pisirilmesi ya da islem gormesi, Indol ve Glutation gibi bazi antioksidanlarin yok olmasina neden olur. Brokoliyi cig ya da az pismis olarak mikrodalga ve kavurarak tuketin. Gaz uretimini azaltmak icin, brokoliyi zencefil ya da sarimsak ile yemeyi deneyin.

* Brokoli, kolestrol dusurucu lifler bakiminda zengindir. Bu sayede virus ve ulser onleyici olarak aktiftir. Ayrica, Krom bakimindan cok zengin olusu, kan sekeri ve insulinin ayarlanmasina yardim eder.

* Brokoli, sut icmeyenler icin onemli bir Kalsiyum kaynagidir. Arastirmalara gore Kalsiyum sadece kemikleri guclendirmekle kalmaz, yuksek tansiyonun kontrolunde ve Kolon Kanserinin onlenmesinde de rol oynar.

Brokoli tarifleri icin tiklayin

Yogurdun Faydalari (Benefits of Yogurt)

* Hastaliklara karsi direnci artirir.

*Bagisiklik sistemini guclendirir ve hastalik yapan mantarlar da dahil olmak uzere tum mikroplardan, sindirim sistemi kanserlerine kadar pek cok hastaliktan korur.

* Buyume- gelisme caginda; dis ve kemik gelisimini hizlandirir.

* Rasitizmden (cocuk felci) korur.

* Menopoz sonrasi kadinlarda ve yasli erkeklerde kemikleri guclendirir, kirilmalari onler.

* Yogurt, bebeklere altinci aydan sonra ek olarak verilen ilk besinlerden biridir. Boylece bebeklerin kemik ve dis gelisimine yardimci olur.

* Bagirsaklardaki yararli bakterilerin olusumunu hizlandirir.

* Ishalden korur ve kabizligi giderir.

* Bagirsak hareketlerini duzene sokar ve bagirsak ulserlerinden korur.

* Agiz kokusunu ve dis tasi olusumunu onler.

* Uyku sorunu olanlarin yatmadan once bir kase yogurt yemesi onerilir.

* Diyabet hastalarina iyi gelir.

* Kotu kolesterolu (LDL) dusurur, iyi kolesterolu (HDL) yukseltir.

* Vucuttaki yaglarin yakimini kolaylastirir ve kilo almayi onler.

* Cok yogurt yiyenlerin az yiyenlere gore daha uzun omurlu ve daha saglikli yasadiklari gozlenmistir.

* Yogurt, vitamin icerdigi icin suyu suzulmeden yenmelidir. Suzme yogurt B vitamininden fakirdir.

* Yogurt, buyuk bir Calcium kaynagidir, gunluk % 40 ihtiyaci karsilar.

* Laktoz intolerans (laktaz enzimi eksikligi olanlar, sut sekeri olan laktozu sindiremez) yuzunden sut tuketemeyenler icin yogurt cok idealdir.

* Yogurdu soguk tuketmeye dikkat edin. Yogurttaki yararli bakteriler sicakta hayatta kalamazlar.

Evde yogurt yapimi.....

Omega 3 & Omega 6

Omega-3 ve Omega-6 nin Faydalari

Omega 3 vucut tarafindan yapilamayan ve disaridan yiyeceklerle alinmasi gereken doymamis yag asitlerindendir.En iyi Omega 3 kaynagi baliktir. Omega 3 yag asitleri her yas grubundaki bireyler icin gereklidir.

*Yapilan calismalar, Omega 3 yag asitlerinin LDL kolesterol denilen kotu huylu kolesterolu dusurdugu, iyi huylu kolesterolu yani HDL kolesterolu artirdigini belirtmektedir. Bu durum da kalp damar sagligini koruyucu ve koroner kalp riskini azaltici etki gosterir. Kalp ritim bozukluklarini onleyebilir.
* Bunun yani sira, trigliserid seviyesini dusurur, aterosklerotik plak olusumunu engeller. Damar sagligini koruyucu etki gosterir. Pihtilasma hucreleri trombositlerin yapiskanligini azaltarak pihtilasmaya bagli damar tikanmasi riskini de dusurur. Ayrica; kani incelterek felc riskini dusurdukleri, beynin kanlanmasini guclendirdikleri, bellek sorunlarini azalttiklari da biliniyor.
*Omega 3 yag asidinin ogrenme kabiliyetini artirici etkisi vardir.
*Omega 6 yag asitlerinin cogu bitkisel yaglarda bulunur, linoleik asit gibi (LA; bunu Omega-3 yag asidi olan alfa-linoleik asit ALA ile karistirmamaya dikkat edin). Linoleik asit vucutta gamma-linoleik aside (GLA) donusur ve daha sonra arasidonik aside yikilir (AA). AA dogrudan etten alinabilir ve bircok bitkisel yag kaynakli yaglardan alinabilir.
*Hamilelik sirasinda, bebek Omega 3 yag asitlerini anneden alir. Bu nedenle, hamilelik surecindeki annenin balik tuketmesi gereklidir.
*Cocuklarin surekli ve iyi bir Omega 3 yag asidi kaynagina ihtiyaclari vardir. Cocuklarda dikkat yetersizligi, konsantrasyon bozuklugu ve hiperaktivite ile mucadelede ozellikle DHA son derece etkili bulunuyor.
*Bellek icin yararli etkileri ozellikle bebekler ve buyume cagindaki cocuklarda onemlidir. Bu yastaki cocuklarda ogrenmeyi, problem cozme yetenegini ozellikle DHA’nin iyilestirdigi biliniyor. Cocuklardaki zeka gelisimine yardimci oluyor ve bu durum beyindeki yagin ana bilesiminin Omega-3 yag asitleri iceren DHA (Docosa Haxaenoic Acid) olmasindan kaynaklaniyor. Bu yaglar bebek ve cocuklarda gozlerin gormede temel islevler goren retina tabakasinin gelismesini destekliyor. Yaslilarda sari noktanin zayiflamasina bagli gorme kayiplarini azaltiyor.
*Omega-3 yaglari bakimindan zengin beslenenlerde Alzheimer hastaligina yakalanma olasiligi daha dusuk oluyor.
*Omega-3 yaglarinin kan basinci kontrolunu kolaylastirdigi biliniyor. Cunku Omega-3 yaglari atar damar duvarlarinin esnekligini artiriyor. DHA ve EPA’nin kanserden korudugu da biliniyor.
*Ozellikle meme, prostat ve kolon kanserinden korunmada bu yaglar faydali oluyor.
*Yiyeceklerle bol miktarda DHA alan kisilerde bagisiklik kokenli saglik sorunlarina ve romatizmal problemlere seyrek rastlaniyor.
*Omega-3 yaglarinin depresyona yakalanma olasiligini azalttigi, depresyon tedavisini kolaylastirdigi bilimsel olarak kanitlanmistir.
*Omega-6 yag asitlerinin bazi formlari alkol aliskanligindan kurtulmaya yardim eder ve karacigerin zarar gormesini engeller.
*GLA formundaki Omega-6 yag asitleri, seker hastalarinda gorulen sinir bozukluklarini (ayak ve ellerde his kaybi, agri, uyusma, karincalanma gibi…)onlemeye yardimci olur.
*Yine GLA formu goz kurulugu gibi bazi goz hastaliklarina iyi gelir.
*Omega yag asitleri vucuttaki trigliseridi azalttiklarindan dolayi kilo vermede yardimci olurlar.
*Omega-3 yaglarini vucut uretemiyor. Disaridan besinlerle alinmalari gerekiyor. Bu yaglar en cok balikta ve deniz urunlerinde bulunuyor. Ozellikle soguk sularda yetisen yagli baliklarda. Su ne kadar soguksa baligin Omega-3 uretimi o kadar fazla oluyor. Bunun nedeni Omega-3 yaglarinin balik vucudunu soguktan koruyan bir antifriz gorevi yapmalaridir.

*Ayrica ceviz ve diger kuruyemisler, keten tohumu ve yesil yaprakli sebzeler de omega 3 bakimindan zengindir. Keten tohumu yagi kullanarak, (taze kullanmaya, koyu renkli sisede ve buzdolabinda saklamaya dikkat edin) ekmek ve kurabiyelerinize keten tohumu ekleyerek, daha fazla tam bugday, findik tuketerek ve salatalariniza daha cok semizotu ekleyerek vucudunuza daha cok Omega-3 yagi kazandirabilirsiniz.

*Kisacasi Omega-3 yaglari gercek birer saglik mucizesi. Bu yaglarin her ucunu de vucudunuza dogal yolla mumkun oldugu kadar fazla miktarda kazandirmaya calisin. Gunde 2-3 gram Omega-3 almaniz yeterlidir ve en az 150-160 mg EPA ve DHA tuketmeyi hedeflemek gerekiyor.
*Unutmayin, Omega-3 yaglarini yeterince alamazsaniz urettiginiz hucrelerinizin zarlari yeteri kadar saglam olmaz. Gucsuz, zayif, kalp krizine, kalp ritim bozukluguna, felce, kansere, insulin direncine egilimli hucreler uretirsiniz. Omega-3 yaglarindan faydalanmayi bir aliskanlik haline getirin.

Ispanak (Spinach)

Ispanak Gercegi:

Yillardir, icinde cok demir oldugunu sandigimiz ispanak, aslinda marul ya da diger yesil sebzelerle ayni oranda demir tasiyor diyebiliriz. Kayisi dahi ispanaktan daha fazla demir iceriyor. Bilimsel olarak; gidalarda demir 2 ayri formda bulunur. Bir cesidi vucut tarafindan %30 emilir (bu demir cesidi; kirmizi et, kanatli etleri ve balikta bulunur ).Diger cesit bitkilerde bulunur ve % 2-10 emilim gosterir. Sonuc olarak, etlerden aldiginiz demir vucudunuzda daha fazla emilir ve fayda gorur. Ispanaktaki durum: demir orani yuksek ama emilen demir orani dusuktur. Mecimek ise: ispanaga gore demir orani dusuk, ama yararlanilabilen (emilen) demir orani daha yuksektir.
Ispanak genel olarak iyi bir A, C ve K vitamini kaynagidir. Ayrica; Folat (folik asit), Potasyum, Fosfat, Selenyum ve Demir icerir. Kan yapiminda ve kansizligin olusumu engellemede rol alir. Ispanak guclu olmaniza ve vucudunuzda bulunan zehirli ve toksik maddelerin atilmasinda yardimci olur.

Bakteriler (Bakteria)

Butun bakteriler zararli degildir. Hastalik yapici ve hatta oldurucu etkiye sahip bakterilerin yaninda; yararli bakteriler de vardir.

* Mesela, yogurt yapiminda kullanilan ve sutun yogurda donusumunu gerceklestiren starter kultur olarak kullanilan yogurt bakterileri: Streptecoccus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus
* Peynir yapiminda kullanilan starter kulturlerden bazilari ise: Lactococcus lactis ssp cremoris, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus ve Leuconostoc turevleri.
* Kimi bakterilerde asi veya antibiyotik olarak tip sektorunde insanlara daha saglikli bir hayat sunmak icin kullanilirlar. Bilindigi uzere oldurulmus veya zayiflatilmis bakteriler insan vucuduna enjekte edildiginde, vucut bu bakterilere karsi antikor uretmeye baslar ve bu zayiflatilmis veya olu olan bakterilere karsi bir ustunluk saglar. Bu olaya tip alaninda bagisiklik denmektedir. Vucut gucsuz bakterilere karsi kendini hazirlamis olur ve guclu, saglam bakterilerle karsilastiginda nasil davranmasi gerektigini ogrenmis olur. Bildiginiz gibi gunumuzde de tetanoz ve verem gibi, bir çok hastaligi onlemek için cesitli bakteriler kullanilir ve bir cesit onlem olarak kabul edilirler.
* Yine benzer sekildeki bazi bakteriler tip sektorunde antibiyotik yapiminda kullanilirlar. Streptomycin adi verilen bir bakteri cesidi; Bacitracin, Polymyxin ve Erythromycin adi verilen antibiyotikler uretmektedir. Bu antibiyotikler hastalik onleyici olarak cogu zaman insanlar tarafindan kullanilmaktadir.
* Ayrica yine Clostridium bacterium adi verilen bir bakteri cesidinin fermantasyonu sureci sonunda ortaya cikan butil alkol ve aseton kimya sektorunde çok kullanilan degerli kimyasal maddelerdendir.
* Yine benzer sekilde insan kaninin plazmasinda bulunan Dextran adli yararli bir madde; Leuoconostoc adli bir bakteri tarafindan yapilmaktadir.
* Bazi bakteri turleri; bazi hayvanlarin bagirsaklarinda ozellikle seluloz sindiriminde kullanilmaktadir ve selulozun karbonhidratlarin temel tasi olan glikoza indirgenmesini saglar ve böylece hucreler için gerekli olan enerji de bulunmus olur.
* Eger curukcul bakteriler olmasaydi olu insan bedenleri ve canliligini yitirmis bitki parcaciklari olduklari gibi kalacak ve bunlarin ana organik maddelere donusumu olmayacakti. Boylece karbon dongusunun onemli bir parcasi yerine getirilmemis olacakti. Bu curukcul bakteriler yaptiklari bu parcalama islemiyle ayni zamanda topraklari da beslerler ve verimli hale getirirler.

Yaglar (Fats)

Doymus Yaglar

Doymus yaglar genellikle oda sicakliginda kati halde bulunurlar. Oncelikle hayvansal gidalarda bulunurlar. Tereyagi, sut, krema, ic yagi, et... Bununla birlikte; palm yagi, hindistan cevizi yagi, sebze yaglari ve fistic yagi gibi bitkisel kaynakli gidalarda da bulunabilirler. Bu yaglar kandaki kolestrol miktarini yukseltirler.

Doymamis Yaglar

Doymamis yaglar oda sicakliginda genelde sivi halde bulunurlar. Kaynak olarak bitkisel kaynakli gidalarda bulunurlar. Zeytin, misir ozu yagi, aycicek yagi, fistik ve diger kuruyemislerde bulunur.

*Coklu Doymamis Yaglar

Genellikle oda sicakliginda sivi olurlar. Kandaki kolestrol seviyesini dusurdukleri bilinir. Aycicek yagi, misir ozu yagi ve margarin gibi yaglarda yuksek miktarlarda coklu doymamis yag aside bulunur.

*Tekli Doymamis Yaglar

Oda sicakliginda, hem sivi hem de kati halde bulunabilirler. Hem bitkisel hemde hayvansal kaynakli olabilirler. Zeytin, fistik ve kanola yaglari tekli doymamis yaglar bakimindan zengindir. En saglikli pisirme yaglari; zeytinyagi ve kanola yagidir.

Trans Yag Asitleri

Sivi bitkisel yaglara Hidrojen eklenip, yuksek basinc uygulamasina tabi tutulunca kati hale gecerler. Bu yaglara Gecis Yaglar (Trans Fats) denir. Margarin, nebati yaglar, coreklerde ve diger hamur islerinde bulunurlar.

Saglik Bilgileri (Health Tips)

*** Cig sogan yemek, ya da cignemek, agzinizdaki ve dislerinizdeki bakterileri yok eder.

***Cilekte bulunan bir cesit protein, serotonin hormonuna etki eder ve bu hormone mutluluk hissini arttirir. Ayni zamanda stresi ve istahi azaltir.

***Kullandiginiz kizartma yagini tekrar kullanmayin ve yanmis yiyecekler tuketmeyin. Yanik gidalar ve yanmis yag kanserojen maddeler icerir.

***Domates, guclu bir antioksidan olan likopen deposudur.

***Yogurt, kayisi, erik, zeytinyagi ve papatya cayi kabizligi onlemeye ve kabizligi tedavi etmeye yardimci olur.

***Cay yapraklarinin kaynamis su ile ani temasi, caydaki C vitaminini yok eder ve icindeki mineral degerlerini azaltir. Ayni zamanda kaynamis su, cayin icindeki tanen maddesini parcalar, yok eder ve bu da kansizliga yol acar. Bunu onlemek icin demlige koydugumuz cayi temiz su ile yikiyoruz ya da 1-2 kasik soguk su ile islatiyoruz.

Besin ve Vitamin Degerlerinin Korunmasi (Protection of Nutrition and Vitamin Values)

***C vitamini, havadaki Oksijen, isi ve gunes isigi ile temasindan 30 dakika sonra degerini yitirir. Bardaga doktugunuz meyve sularini ve dilimlediginiz meyveleri bir an once tuketin.Meyve sularinizin kapagini acik birakmayin, isi ve gunes isigindan uzak yerlerde muhafaza edin.

***Brokoliyi pisirmeden tuketmeye calisin. Pisirmek ya da kaynatmak brokolideki vitaminleri ve mineralleri azaltir ya da yok eder.

***Cay yapraklarinin kaynamis su ile ani temasi, caydaki C vitaminini yok eder ve icindeki mineral degerlerini azaltir. Ayni zamanda kaynamis su, cayin icindeki tanen maddesini parcalar, yok eder ve bu da kansizliga yol acar. Bunu onlemek icin demlige koydugumuz cayi temiz su ile yikiyoruz ya da 1-2 kasik soguk su ile islatiyoruz.

***Salatanizi servisten en fazla 30 dakika once dograyin. Dogranan sebzeler, hava ile temas ettikten 30 dakika sonra, ozellikle C vitamini olmak uzere, vitamin kaybina ugrarlar.

***Makarna, eriste gibi gidalarin pisme sularinin dokulmesi besin degerini dusurur. Pilav pisirir gibi, cekecegi kadar su koyarak pisirin, boylece besin degeri daha yuksek makarna tuketmis olursunuz.

***Yumurtayi cig olarak tuketmemelisiniz. Sindirimi zordur, besin zehirlenmesi yapabilir ve B grubu vitaminlerinden biyotin yararli etkisini gosteremez.

***Yumurtayi en fazla 6-8 dakika sureyle haslamalisiniz. Uzun sure haslanan yumurtanin sarisi etrafinda olusan yesil halka, besin degerinin azaldigini gosterir.

***Dondurulmus sebzelerin icerdikleri besin ogelerini maksimum oranda korumak icin pisirmeden once kesinlikle cozundurmemelisiniz.
***Yesil salata ve marulun yapraklarini yikadiktan sonra bicakla keserek dogramak yerine, elinizle koparin. Boylece vitamin kaybini onlemis olursunuz.