Sunday, August 10, 2008

Benefits of Broccoli (Brokolinin Faydalari)

* Broccoli's significant nutrients include Vitamin C, Vitamin A (mostly as beta-carotene), Calcium, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Potassium, Folic Acid, and fiber.

* Broccoli is an important calcium source for those who don't consume dairy products. Calcium does more than build strong bones. Research shows that this mineral may play a role in the control of High Blood Pressure, and it may work to prevent Colon Cancer.

* Broccoli is not only a rich source of fiber, but half of its fiber is insoluble and half is soluble, helping to meet your needs for both types of fiber. Fiber helps you to remove the heavy metals and toxins from your intestines. Also it prevents the constipation

* Broccoli provides a health bonus in the form of protective substances that may shield you from disease. Botanically, broccoli belongs to the Cabbage Family, collectively known as cruciferous vegetables.

* Broccoli is a spectacular and unique package of versatile disease fighters and abundant in numerous strong, well-known phyto chemicals and antioxidants, including indoles, isothiocyanates, quercetin, glutathione, beta carotene, vitamin C, folate, lutein, glucarate, and glutathione.

* Broccoli is extremely strong in anticancer activity, particularly against lung, colon, prostates and breast cancers. Like other cruciferous vegetables, it speeds up the removal of estrogen from the body, helping suppress breast cancer.

* Broccoli is rich in cholesterol-reducing fiber and has antiviral and antiulcer activity. It is a super source of chromium that helps regulate insulin and blood sugar.

* Broccoli is also a good source of calcium, thus help fight osteoporosis. However, broccoli is one of the leading intestinal gas producers.

* Broccoli adjusts the balance of the hormone levels in our body, with the help of indole and indole derivatives (botanical hormones).

* Heavy cooking and processing destroy some of the anti oxidants and phyto chemicals such as Indoles and glutathione. Eat raw or lightly cooked as in microwave and stir-fry. To reduce its gas production, eat broccoli with ginger or garlic.

* Nowadays the world wide researches are mostly done about; white cabbage, radish, tomato, broccoli and carrot.

* Broccoli is a very strong antioxidant, which helps to neutralize the free radicals which damage the cell membranes and cell DNAs. Beta-carotene and vitamin C are important antioxidants which help to reduce the risk of numerous conditions, including Heart Diseases, Cataract, and several cancers.

Omega 3 & Omega 6

Nutritional Benefit of Omega-3 and Omega-6

Omega-3 fatty acids are considered to be essential for human health but they cannot be produced by the body. For this reason, omega-3 fatty acids must be obtained from the food we eat. They can be found in fish (e.g. salmon, tuna, and halibut) and other marine life (e.g. algae and krill), certain plants (including purslane) and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain functions as well as for the growth and development of brain.
The American Heart Association recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and salmon) at least 2 times a week. It is advised that pregnant women, mothers, nursing mothers, young children and women who might become pregnant should eat several types of fish, including swordfish, shark, and king mackerel. There are three major types of omega 3 fatty acids in foods that can be used by our body:
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Once eaten, the body converts ALA to EPA and DHA, the two types of omega-3 fatty acids that can used easier by the body. Extensive research indicates that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and help to prevent the risk factors associated with chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. These essential fatty acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be particularly important for cognitive (brain memory and performance) and behavioral function.
In fact, infants who do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids from their mothers during pregnancy are at risk for developing vision and nerve problems. Symptoms of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency include extreme tiredness (fatigue), poor memory, dry skin, heart problems, mood swings or depression, and poor circulation.
It is important to maintain an appropriate balance of omega-3 and omega-6 (another essential fatty acid) in the diet, as these two substances work together to promote health. An inappropriate balance of these essential fatty acids contributes to the development of disease while a proper balance helps maintain and even improve health. Together, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function as well as normal growth and development. EFAs belong to the class of fatty acids called polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They are generally necessary for stimulating skin and hair growth, maintaining bone health, regulating metabolism, and maintaining reproductive capability.
A healthy diet should consist of roughly 2 - 4 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. There are several different types of omega-6 fatty acids. Most omega-6 fatty acids are consumed in the diet from vegetable oils as linoleic acid (LA; be careful not to confuse this with alpha-linolenic acid [ALA] which is an omega-3 fatty acid). Linoleic acid is converted to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the body and then further broken down to arachidonic acid (AA). AA can also be consumed directly from meat, and GLA can be ingested from several plant-based oils including evening primrose oil (EPO), borage oil, and black currant seed oil.
Excess amounts of LA and AA are unhealthy because they promote inflammation, thereby leading to several of the diseases described above. In contrast, GLA may actually reduce inflammation The typical American diet tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids, and many researchers believe this imbalance is a significant factor in the rising rate of inflammatory disorders in the United States.
In contrast, however, the Mediterranean diet consists of a healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and many studies have shown that people who follow this diet are less likely to develop heart disease. It also contains another fatty acid, omega-9 fatty acids, which have been reported to help lower risks associated with cancer and heart disease.
The Mediterranean diet does not include much meat (which is high in omega-6 fatty acids) and emphasizes foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, including whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, olive oil, garlic, as well as moderate wine consumption.

*Several clinical studies suggest that diets or supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure significantly in individuals with hypertension.

*Who consume high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from fatty fish, also tend to have increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides (fatty material that circulates in the blood). In addition, fish oil supplements containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported in several large clinical studies to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

*One of the best ways to help prevent and treat heart disease is to eat a low-fat diet and to replace foods rich in saturated and trans-fat with those that are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including omega-3 fatty acids). Clinical evidence suggests that EPA and DHA found in fish oil help to reduce the risk factors for heart disease including high cholesterol and high blood pressure. There is also strong evidence that these substances can help to prevent and treat the atherosclerosis by inhibiting the development of plaque and blood clots, each of which tends to clog arteries

*Strong evidence from population-based clinical studies suggests that omega-3 fatty acid intake (primarily from fish) helps to protect against stroke caused by plaque buildup and blood clots in the arteries that lead to the brain. In fact, eating at least 2 servings of fish per week can reduce the risk of stroke by as much as 50%.

*Individuals with diabetes tend to have high triglyceride and low HDL levels. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help to lower triglycerides and apoproteins (markers of diabetes), and raise HDL, so people with diabetes may benefit from eating foods or taking supplements that contain DHA and EPA. ALA (from flaxseed, for example) may not have the same benefit as DHA and EPA because some people with diabetes lack the ability to efficiently convert ALA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids that the body can use readily.

*Clinical studies suggest that overweight people who follow a weight loss program that includes exercise tend to achieve better control over their blood sugar and cholesterol levels when fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids (such as salmon, mackerel, and herring) is a staple in their low-fat diet.

*Most clinical studies investigating the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements for inflammatory joint conditions have focused almost entirely on rheumatoid arthritis. The diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids (and low in the inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids) may benefit people with other inflammatory disorders, such as osteoarthritis.

*Omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA help to increase levels of calcium in the body, deposit calcium in the bones, and improve bone strength. In addition, studies also suggest that people who are deficient in certain essential fatty acids (particularly EPA and gamma-linolenic acid [GLA], an omega-6 fatty acid) are more likely to suffer from bone loss and osteoporosis than those with normal levels of these fatty acids.

*Omega-6 fatty acid supplementation, in the form of GLA from EPO or other sources, may assist nerve function and help prevent nerve disease experienced by those with diabetes (called peripheral neuropathy and felt as numbness, tingling, pain, burning, or lack of sensation in the feet and/or legs).

*GLA may be beneficial in dry-eye conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome (a condition with symptoms of dry eyes, dry mouth, and, often, arthritis).

*Some speculate that dietary LA (from, for example, corn oil) may prove beneficial for these skin conditions by replenishing the low levels of LA in these lesions.

* Some forms of Omega-6 fatty acids may help lessen cravings for alcohol and prevent liver damage.

*People who do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids or do not maintain a healthy balance of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in their diet may be at an increased risk for depression. The omega-3 fatty acids are important components of nerve cell membranes. They help nerve cells communicate with each other, which is an essential step in maintaining good mental health. In particular, DHA is involved in a variety of nerve cell processes.

Benefits of Yogurt (Yogurdun Faydalari)

* Yogurt is a huge source of Calcium, 40 % of daily value (DV)

* It makes the immune system stronger.

* It helps to improve the bones and teeth during the childhood and adolescence.

* Helps to growth of the beneficial bacteria in the intestine.

* It helps to prevent rachitis.

* It helps to cure costiveness and diarrhea.

* It prevents the tartar and bad breath.

* Yogurt is given to babies after six months as an additional nutrition. It improves the growth of teeth and bones.

* It helps to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in old women and men.

* It helps to have a good sleep, when you eat yogurt before going to bed.

* It decreases the bad cholesterol (LDL), increases the good cholesterol (HDL)

* It is good for diabetics.

* It is a very good source of Calcium for people, who don’t have enough of the enzyme lactase, needed to properly digest the sugar or lactose in milk.(lactose in tolerance)

* Yeast infections are caused by a fungus can also be helped by the bacteria in yogurt.

* The bacteria in yogurt can strengthen in the immune system.

* It can help fight against bacterial infections like salmonella or food poisoning.

* Yogurt helps to prevent your body from ulcers, especially in the stomach and intestine.

* Be sure to keep and consume yogurt cold. The helpful bacteria in yogurt cannot withstand high heat.

* Do not filtrate yogurt, because the vitamins are in the water. So you can lose the Vitamin B.

* It helps to get rid of the fats in the body and helps not to gain weight.
How to make yogurt at home....

Spinach (Ispanak)

Reality of Spinach:

For a long time, we believed that spinach has the most iron content. But in reality, it has the same amount of iron as lettuce or other green vegetables have. Even apricot contains more iron than spinach.
Scientifically, there are two types of iron in food. Our body absorbs 30% of one type of iron which is evident in meat (beef, poultry and fish) and 2-10% of the second one that is evident at plants. The iron content and its absorption rate vary amongst the vegetables. For example; amount of iron is high but its absorption rate is low for spinach while amount of iron is low but its absorption rate is high for lentil. As a result, the iron we got through meat has been observed more and is more beneficial.
Spinach is a good source of Vitamin A, C and K, Folate, Potassium, Phosphate, Selenium and Iron. It is good for blood formation and fighting anemia, spinach makes you stronger and is a potent detoxifier.

Bacteria (Bakteriler)

Not all the bacteria are harmful. Some of the bacteria are useful even though others can cause illness that could even result in death.

*For example yogurt bacteria that we use as starter culture to make yogurt from milk: Streptecoccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

*Some starter cultures that are used in making cheese are: Lactococcus lactis ssp cremoris, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus and Leuconostoc derivatives.

*Some bacteria can be used as antibiotics and vaccines that are useful for healthy life. As you might know, when death or weakened bacteria are injected to human body, our body starts to produce antibodies. These antibodies fight with those bacteria and wins. This is called immunization. Our body learns how to fight with strong bacteria by training himself through fighting with weakened bacteria. As you know this method is being used very effectively for tetanus and tuberculosis.

*Similarly some bacteria are being used to produce antibiotics in medicine. Streptomycin, a bacterium, is being used to produce Bacitracin, Polymyxin ve Erythromycin. These antibiotics are being used for preventing diseases of human beings.

*Also, as a result of fermentation of a bacterium, Clostridium bacterium, butyl alcohol and acetone are produced which are precious compounds for chemical industry.

*Similarly, Dextran, a useful compound in our blood plasma, is being produced by a bacteria called Leuoconostoc.

*Some bacteria are being used in some of the animals’ intestines to digest cellulose. They produce glucose, fundamental substance of carbohydrate from cellulose. This process also produces the energy for cells.

*If saprophyte bacteria are not available, human corpses and death plants will not be decayed to main organic ingredients. This would stop the carbon cycle. These saprophyte bacteria also fertilize the soil by doing the mentioned process.

Fats (Yaglar)

Saturated Fats
Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature. They are primarily found in animal products such as butter, milk, cream, and lard. Some plant foods, such as palm oil, coconut oil, vegetable shortening, and some peanut butters have large amounts of these fats. They have been known to increase blood cholesterol levels.

Unsaturated Fats

They are found mostly in plant-based foods. They are generally liquid at room temperature. Sunflower oil, corn oil, olive, peanut and other nuts, etc.

*Polyunsaturated Fats
Polyunsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature and tend to lower blood cholesterol levels. Fats such as sunflower oil, corn oil, and soft margarines have large amounts of polyunsaturated fats.

*Monounsaturated Fats

They can be liquid or solid at room temperature, and can be found both in plant or animal sources. Olive, peanut, and canola oils are high in this fat. Monounsaturated fats have been shown to decrease cholesterol levels. The healthiest cooking oils are olive oil and canola.

Trans-Fatty Acids

Fats produced when hydrogen is added to liquid vegetable oil, turning it into a solid fat. Found in shortening, stick margarine, doughnuts and other baked goods.

Health Tips (Saglik Bilgileri)

***Tomato is a very good source of lycopene, which is a very powerful antioxidant.

***The immediate contact of the tea leaves with boiled water would lose the Vitamin C and affect the minerals in it. Also boiled water damages the tannin material and it causes anemia.To prevent this situations wash the tea leaves in the brewer or wet them with 1-2 tbsp of cold water.

***Strawberry has a protein which effects the serotonin hormone and this hormones make feel happy. Also it lessens the stress and appetite.

***Eating raw onions kills the bacteria in your teeth and mouth.

***Yogurt, apricot, plum and olive oil prevents and helps to cure the constipation.

For more inspiration and resources, online classes in nutrition are available

Protection of Nutrition and Vitamin Values (Besin ve Vitamin Degerlerinin Korunmasi)

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***To prevent the Vitamin loss while preparing green salads, do not use knife to cut them in pieces, try to use your hands for lettuce, parsley and etc.

***To drain the pasta and egg noodles will lead to a decrease in nutrition value. While cooking them, add the exact amount of water, which evaporates, like in pilaf. So, you will cook more nutritious pasta and egg noodles.

*** Do not consume raw egg. Its digestion is difficult and a food borne disease can occur, also the biotin, from the group of Vitamin B will be damaged.

***You should boil the eggs for maximum 6-8 minutes. Otherwise, the green layer on the surface of the egg proves the loss of the nutrition loss.

*** Do not thaw the frozen vegetables before cooking. By this way you will use the maximum nutrition value.

***The immediate contact of the tea leaves with boiled water would lose the Vitamin C and affect the minerals in it. Also boiled water damages the tannin(tanen) material and it causes anemia(kansizlik).To prevent this situations wash the tea leaves in the brewer or wet them with 1-2 tbsp of cold water.

***Make sure you make your salad maximum 30 minutes before serving. Because chopped vegetables starts losing the vitamins, especially Vitamin C, when they contact with air after 30 minutes.

***Vitamin C, is destroyed by the oxygen in the air, heat and sun light in 30 minutes of contact. Consume your fruit juices or sliced fruits as soon as possible. And store them far from the sun light and heat.

***Try to consume broccoli without cooking. Cooking or boiling destroys the vitamins and minerals in it.

Food Safety (Gidalarin Guvenligi)

***Cross Contamination is the physical movement or transfer of harmful bacteria from one person, object or place to another. It is a key factor in food borne illness (food poisoning), and it’s common sources are: food, people, equipment and work surfaces.
Make sure:

* thoroughly washing hands after handling raw foods, especially raw meats,
* using separate cutting boards and food contact surfaces for raw and cooked / pre-cooked and pre-prepared foods,
* not to make contact between raw and cooked/pre-cooked and pre-prepared foods
* not placing bulk food containers on bench surfaces,
* using correct sanitation procedures for all utensils and equipment,
* that cleaning cloths are single service or are adequately sanitized,
* keep raw foods and ready to eat foods separate.

*** High Risk Foods are those perishable foods which can support the growth of harmful bacteria and are intended to be eaten without further treatment such as cooking, which would destroy such organisms.
They include:
* All cooked meat and poultry.
* Cooked meat products including gravy, stock, and roll/sandwich fillings.
* Milk, cream, artificial cream, custards and dairy products.
* Cooked eggs and products made with eggs, eg. mayonnaise.
* Shellfish and other seafood.
* Cooked rice.

***Signs of food spoilage:
* Bad odors (off odors) occur.
* Foods become slimy as the bacterial population grows.
* Foods become discolored by the microbial growth.
* Foods go sour when certain bacteria produce acids.
* Yeasts and bacteria often produce gaseous by- products that can affect food.

***Do not sprinkle the cinnamon right after you pour the rice pudding to the bowls. This would let the microorganisms grow fast contacting the cinnamon with the hot surface of the rice pudding and this may lead to food borne diseases. Make sure you sprinkle the cinnamon just before serving the cooled rice pudding.

***Most probable growth conditions of microorganisms:
* In the presence or absence of oxygen.
* At temperatures between -7 to around 70°C.
* Over a pH range from 0 to 11.
* At water activities above about 0.6. (Spoilage of any particular food will be by the organisms most suited to the conditions in and around that food.)

***While thawing the frozen fish, first leave it in the fridge (4C) for 12 hours, then thaw it at room temperature for 4-5 hours and cook immediately. Make sure you do not leave the frozen fish directly at the room temperature. This would cause the pathogenic organisms to grow and spread over the fish quickly.

***Cooked vegetables can be kept max 4 days and cooked meats 3 days in the fridge.

***Make sure you do not keep cooked or raw fish in your fridge more than 2 days.

***The cold atmosphere in the fridge do not kill the bacteria, it just stop their growth and decrease the infection risk.

***Do not use the frying oil twice; make sure not to consume burnt food. Burnt food and oil contains carcinogenic agents.

***Do not consume raw egg. Its digestion is difficult and a food borne disease can occur, also the biotin, from the group of Vitamin B will be damaged.

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***Hard plastic or glass cutting boards are less porous than wooden cutting boards, so they are the safest for cutting raw poultry, meat, fish and seafood.
Wooden cutting boards can be used for foods like fresh produce, bread, nuts, dried fruits...

***When a cutting board gets deep scratches and cuts, toss it out!

***You should always wash your hands, knife and cutting board thoroughly in the dishwasher or very hot, soapy water after cutting or skinning raw poultry. Do not reuse the knife and cutting board until it has been thoroughly cleaned. Never place cooked poultry on the same platter that you used for your raw poultry. When taking chicken outside to grill, cover a plate with foil, place the raw chicken on top of that, and then remove the foil for after the chicken has been cooked. Use smart food storage techniques to protect yourself from Bacteria in raw chicken.

Many clinical assistant have seen the unhappy results of improper food handling, all of which could have been avoided with a little care and knowledge.

Storing Food ( Gidalarin Saklanmasi)

***Cooked vegetables can be kept max 4 days and cooked meats 3 days in the fridge.

***Make sure you do not keep cooked or raw fish in your fridge more than 2 days.

*** To prevent your pastes from going bad, flatten their surfaces and add some olive oil. This cuts the air contact with the paste and bacteria cannot grow. You can keep the pastes for so long that way.

***The best way to keep fish really fresh is to place the fish in a double plastic bag filled with water and place near the freezer wall. Fish should never be refrozen.

***For dried foods, almost anything can be used as a food storage container, as long as it has a tight fitting lid. Lidded jars or other containers work well, as well as storage bags or plastic containers. Be sure to store the dried food in a dark, cool place to prevent oxidation. Store the food in small batches, and be sure to check weekly for signs of mold for the first several weeks.

***After opening your canned food, replace it to a glass container to keep longer and healthier.

***The best way to keep honey is to place it to a cool and dark place. It should not contact with sunlight. Do not leave its cover open, honey will gather moisture and its taste will turn somewhat bitter. If you do not pay attention for keeping honey, it will crystallize and lose its nutrition value.

***To prevent the potatoes crinkle and sprout, place an apple among them. By this way, you will keep them for a long time.

***Bacteria grows most rapidly between 40 degrees F and 140 degrees F. For smart food storage keep foods above or below this range as much as possible.

***Freezing berries is easy. Spread berries out on jelly roll pans in a single layer, making sure the berries are not touching. Freeze until firm. When berries are completely frozen, remove from the pan and place in freezer containers of your choice. Freezing the berries individually means you can remove the amount you want without having them stick together.

***If you are not planning to use nuts immediately, store them in the freezer to preserve their freshness. They will also crack more easily after freezing.

***Freeze baked cookies for months of ready-made snacks. Cooled cookies, double-wrapped in plastic sheets or plastic storage bags will last up to 3 months. To thaw, remove cookies from freezer, unwrap and place them in a single layer on wire racks for 15 to 30 minutes. Store not eaten cookies in a tightly covered container.

***There are three ways you can freeze your onions. Freezing changes the onions texture, so frozen onions should be used only for cooking.
1- Chop and place onions on a cookie sheet in the freezer. When frozen, remove and place in freezer containers or bags, and seal. This allows you to remove the amount you want, when you want.
2- You can also freeze whole onions. Peel, wash, core and place onions in a plastic bag and freeze.
3- You may also slice your onions and saute them in a little butter, cool and then freeze in freezer bags.
Drying: Chop onions and dry in oven using lowest setting and remove when thoroughly dry but not brown. Store at room temperature in airtight container.

***Spice Storage: Always store your herbs and spices away from heat and moisture in an airtight container. This will prevent moisture from collecting in the herbs and causing mold and mildew which are harmful. It will also ensure they stay fresh and that they do not over dry if in extreme heat. The heat and direct sun can also cause bleaching of the herbs. Keep your herbs fresh in taste and sight so you can create the best dish possible. So move your spice cabinet away from heat and sun light.

***Don't let unused bread go to waste. Bread will keep up to 3 weeks in the refrigerator if you wrap it in foil and store it on a low shelf. Also, you can freeze it in the same way and store up to 3 months.

***To store grated cheese; put a teaspoon of baking soda in your container of grated cheese. Shake well before freezing and your cheese will not stick together.

***For storing chicken; marinade in which raw chicken has been soaking should never be used on fully cooked chicken. Thaw frozen chicken in the refrigerator, not in room temperature and on the counter top. Freeze uncooked chicken if it is not going to be used within 2 days.

***To extend the life of a cucumber once it has been cut open, wrap it in a paper towel or aluminum foil and keep it in the vegetable drawer of your refrigerator.

***While storing bananas; you can save ripe bananas for baking later, just mash them and freeze in the amounts needed for your recipes. If you are short on time just put them in the freezer, unpeeled, and when ready to use let them defrost and peel. You barely have to mash them, because they are already very soft.

***For keeping celery fresh for 2 weeks or longer; take it out of the bag it came in, rinse it with water and wrap it in aluminum foil. This will keep it chilled and lasting longer. For crispy celery; dampen a paper towel, wrap it around your celery, and then wrap completely in foil. It will stay crisp in your refrigerator for at least a month.

***For saving sauce; place any extra sauce or broth into a plastic ice cube tray. When they are frozen, pop them out and put them in a ziploc bag for smart food storage. If you measure out the sauce or broth before you freeze it, you won't even have to defrost it when you need to use it, just toss it into the pot.

***You can store apples in the refrigerator and they should be fine to eat for up to 2 months.

***The most effective food storage for tomatoes is in a brown paper bag or closed container. Adding an apple or pear to the container can also hasten ripening. Store the tomatoes in a single layer and with the stem ends up to avoid bruising.

***Expiration dates on milk are usually very conservative. If the milk is properly stored, it should be fine to drink up to a week after the date on the carton.

***The best place to store cheese is in the refrigerator, the closer to the bottom the better, preferably in the vegetable crisper. Hard cheeses will keep in the freezer, tightly wrapped in plastic wrap and aluminum foil, for two to three months. It is best not to store a soft cheese in the freezer. You can store feta cheese in salty water for longer.

***Store uncooked pasta in a tightly sealed package or food storage container in a cool, dry place. Store and use non-egg pasta for up to three years and egg pasta for up to two years.

***Ground meat will keep safely in the refrigerator for only 1 to 2 days. If you don't plan on using it immediately, put it in the freezer where it will keep for 3 months.


Guide to Healthcare Schools is a comprehensive resource for proper food safety

Saturday, August 9, 2008

Brokolinin Faydalari (Benefits of Broccoli)

Brokoli, icerdigi maddeler acisindan insan sagligi uzerinde bir cok olumlu etkiye sahiptir.

* Vitamin degeri acisindan; A, E ve C, Karoten vitaminlerini icermektedir. Demir, Selen, Kalsiyum, Bakir ve Potasyum kaynagidir. Icerdigi flavonoidler bakimindan bagisiklik sistemimizi guclendirir.

* Antibiyotik ozelligine sahip olusu, prostatitis'e (prostat enfeksiyonu) karsi cok etkilidir. Genel olarak antibiyotikler, insan hayati icin hayati onem tasiyan, vazgecilmez ilaclardir, fakat bagisiklik sistemini zayiflatirlar. Brokolinin en onemli ozelligi; hem bagisiklik sistemini guclendirmek, hem de antibiyotik vazifesi gormektir.

* Brokoli; meme, prostat, bagirsak ve idrar kesesi kanserlerine karsi guclu bir koruyucudur. Amerika'da ozellikle bu kanser turlerine karsi brokolinin icerdigi bazi maddeler (Sulforafen, Indol-3-Carbinol, DiIndolMethan v.s.) zenginlestirilerek kanser tedavisinde basari ile kullanilmaktadir.

* Brokoli icerdigi bazi indol ve indol turevleri (bitkisel hormonlar) sayesinde vucudumuzdaki hormon dengesini ayarlayici ozellige sahiptir. Yine Amerika'da bazi klinikler menopoz donemindeki bayanlar icin ostrojen hormonunun duzenli calismasi icin brokolideki bitkisel hormonlardan yararlanmaktadirlar.

* Brokolinin kendine ozgu olan selulozik yapisi (lifli yapi) bagirsaklarda olusan toksinlerin atilmasini saglar ve vucutta bulunan agir metallerin diskiyla disari atilmasinda buyuk rol oynamaktadir.

* Brokolinin lifli yapisi; bagirsaklarin calisma duzeninin dengelenmesine yardim eder ve diskinin duzenli bir sekilde disari atilmasini saglayarak, kabizligi onler.

* Bugun dunyada; hakkinda en cok arastirma yapilan sebzeler: beyaz lahana, turp, domates, brokoli ve havuc ilk siralarda yer almaktadir.

* Brokoli; prostatit, iyi huylu prostat buyumesi, ulser, idrar yollari enfeksiyonuna karsi onleyici ve tedavi edici guce sahiptir.

* Brokoli, ozellikle prostat ve meme kanserine karsi etkin 5 farkli koruyucu madde icermektedir. Bunlardan en guclu olani Sulforafen dir.

* Brokoli ayni zamanda guclu bir antioxidandir. Yani hucre zarlarina (membran) ve hucre DNA'sina zarar veren serbest radikalleri notralize (zararsiz hale getirmek) etmektedir. Hucre DNA sini bozabilen serbest radikaller bu ozelliklerinden dolayi kanserojendirler. Beta-karoten ve C Vitamini, Kalp Hastaliklari, Katarakt ve cesitli kanserlerinde icinde bulundugu bir cok hastaliga yakalanma riskini azaltir.

* Brokolinin fazla pisirilmesi ya da islem gormesi, Indol ve Glutation gibi bazi antioksidanlarin yok olmasina neden olur. Brokoliyi cig ya da az pismis olarak mikrodalga ve kavurarak tuketin. Gaz uretimini azaltmak icin, brokoliyi zencefil ya da sarimsak ile yemeyi deneyin.

* Brokoli, kolestrol dusurucu lifler bakiminda zengindir. Bu sayede virus ve ulser onleyici olarak aktiftir. Ayrica, Krom bakimindan cok zengin olusu, kan sekeri ve insulinin ayarlanmasina yardim eder.

* Brokoli, sut icmeyenler icin onemli bir Kalsiyum kaynagidir. Arastirmalara gore Kalsiyum sadece kemikleri guclendirmekle kalmaz, yuksek tansiyonun kontrolunde ve Kolon Kanserinin onlenmesinde de rol oynar.

Brokoli tarifleri icin tiklayin

Yogurdun Faydalari (Benefits of Yogurt)

* Hastaliklara karsi direnci artirir.

*Bagisiklik sistemini guclendirir ve hastalik yapan mantarlar da dahil olmak uzere tum mikroplardan, sindirim sistemi kanserlerine kadar pek cok hastaliktan korur.

* Buyume- gelisme caginda; dis ve kemik gelisimini hizlandirir.

* Rasitizmden (cocuk felci) korur.

* Menopoz sonrasi kadinlarda ve yasli erkeklerde kemikleri guclendirir, kirilmalari onler.

* Yogurt, bebeklere altinci aydan sonra ek olarak verilen ilk besinlerden biridir. Boylece bebeklerin kemik ve dis gelisimine yardimci olur.

* Bagirsaklardaki yararli bakterilerin olusumunu hizlandirir.

* Ishalden korur ve kabizligi giderir.

* Bagirsak hareketlerini duzene sokar ve bagirsak ulserlerinden korur.

* Agiz kokusunu ve dis tasi olusumunu onler.

* Uyku sorunu olanlarin yatmadan once bir kase yogurt yemesi onerilir.

* Diyabet hastalarina iyi gelir.

* Kotu kolesterolu (LDL) dusurur, iyi kolesterolu (HDL) yukseltir.

* Vucuttaki yaglarin yakimini kolaylastirir ve kilo almayi onler.

* Cok yogurt yiyenlerin az yiyenlere gore daha uzun omurlu ve daha saglikli yasadiklari gozlenmistir.

* Yogurt, vitamin icerdigi icin suyu suzulmeden yenmelidir. Suzme yogurt B vitamininden fakirdir.

* Yogurt, buyuk bir Calcium kaynagidir, gunluk % 40 ihtiyaci karsilar.

* Laktoz intolerans (laktaz enzimi eksikligi olanlar, sut sekeri olan laktozu sindiremez) yuzunden sut tuketemeyenler icin yogurt cok idealdir.

* Yogurdu soguk tuketmeye dikkat edin. Yogurttaki yararli bakteriler sicakta hayatta kalamazlar.

Evde yogurt yapimi.....

Omega 3 & Omega 6

Omega-3 ve Omega-6 nin Faydalari

Omega 3 vucut tarafindan yapilamayan ve disaridan yiyeceklerle alinmasi gereken doymamis yag asitlerindendir.En iyi Omega 3 kaynagi baliktir. Omega 3 yag asitleri her yas grubundaki bireyler icin gereklidir.

*Yapilan calismalar, Omega 3 yag asitlerinin LDL kolesterol denilen kotu huylu kolesterolu dusurdugu, iyi huylu kolesterolu yani HDL kolesterolu artirdigini belirtmektedir. Bu durum da kalp damar sagligini koruyucu ve koroner kalp riskini azaltici etki gosterir. Kalp ritim bozukluklarini onleyebilir.
* Bunun yani sira, trigliserid seviyesini dusurur, aterosklerotik plak olusumunu engeller. Damar sagligini koruyucu etki gosterir. Pihtilasma hucreleri trombositlerin yapiskanligini azaltarak pihtilasmaya bagli damar tikanmasi riskini de dusurur. Ayrica; kani incelterek felc riskini dusurdukleri, beynin kanlanmasini guclendirdikleri, bellek sorunlarini azalttiklari da biliniyor.
*Omega 3 yag asidinin ogrenme kabiliyetini artirici etkisi vardir.
*Omega 6 yag asitlerinin cogu bitkisel yaglarda bulunur, linoleik asit gibi (LA; bunu Omega-3 yag asidi olan alfa-linoleik asit ALA ile karistirmamaya dikkat edin). Linoleik asit vucutta gamma-linoleik aside (GLA) donusur ve daha sonra arasidonik aside yikilir (AA). AA dogrudan etten alinabilir ve bircok bitkisel yag kaynakli yaglardan alinabilir.
*Hamilelik sirasinda, bebek Omega 3 yag asitlerini anneden alir. Bu nedenle, hamilelik surecindeki annenin balik tuketmesi gereklidir.
*Cocuklarin surekli ve iyi bir Omega 3 yag asidi kaynagina ihtiyaclari vardir. Cocuklarda dikkat yetersizligi, konsantrasyon bozuklugu ve hiperaktivite ile mucadelede ozellikle DHA son derece etkili bulunuyor.
*Bellek icin yararli etkileri ozellikle bebekler ve buyume cagindaki cocuklarda onemlidir. Bu yastaki cocuklarda ogrenmeyi, problem cozme yetenegini ozellikle DHA’nin iyilestirdigi biliniyor. Cocuklardaki zeka gelisimine yardimci oluyor ve bu durum beyindeki yagin ana bilesiminin Omega-3 yag asitleri iceren DHA (Docosa Haxaenoic Acid) olmasindan kaynaklaniyor. Bu yaglar bebek ve cocuklarda gozlerin gormede temel islevler goren retina tabakasinin gelismesini destekliyor. Yaslilarda sari noktanin zayiflamasina bagli gorme kayiplarini azaltiyor.
*Omega-3 yaglari bakimindan zengin beslenenlerde Alzheimer hastaligina yakalanma olasiligi daha dusuk oluyor.
*Omega-3 yaglarinin kan basinci kontrolunu kolaylastirdigi biliniyor. Cunku Omega-3 yaglari atar damar duvarlarinin esnekligini artiriyor. DHA ve EPA’nin kanserden korudugu da biliniyor.
*Ozellikle meme, prostat ve kolon kanserinden korunmada bu yaglar faydali oluyor.
*Yiyeceklerle bol miktarda DHA alan kisilerde bagisiklik kokenli saglik sorunlarina ve romatizmal problemlere seyrek rastlaniyor.
*Omega-3 yaglarinin depresyona yakalanma olasiligini azalttigi, depresyon tedavisini kolaylastirdigi bilimsel olarak kanitlanmistir.
*Omega-6 yag asitlerinin bazi formlari alkol aliskanligindan kurtulmaya yardim eder ve karacigerin zarar gormesini engeller.
*GLA formundaki Omega-6 yag asitleri, seker hastalarinda gorulen sinir bozukluklarini (ayak ve ellerde his kaybi, agri, uyusma, karincalanma gibi…)onlemeye yardimci olur.
*Yine GLA formu goz kurulugu gibi bazi goz hastaliklarina iyi gelir.
*Omega yag asitleri vucuttaki trigliseridi azalttiklarindan dolayi kilo vermede yardimci olurlar.
*Omega-3 yaglarini vucut uretemiyor. Disaridan besinlerle alinmalari gerekiyor. Bu yaglar en cok balikta ve deniz urunlerinde bulunuyor. Ozellikle soguk sularda yetisen yagli baliklarda. Su ne kadar soguksa baligin Omega-3 uretimi o kadar fazla oluyor. Bunun nedeni Omega-3 yaglarinin balik vucudunu soguktan koruyan bir antifriz gorevi yapmalaridir.

*Ayrica ceviz ve diger kuruyemisler, keten tohumu ve yesil yaprakli sebzeler de omega 3 bakimindan zengindir. Keten tohumu yagi kullanarak, (taze kullanmaya, koyu renkli sisede ve buzdolabinda saklamaya dikkat edin) ekmek ve kurabiyelerinize keten tohumu ekleyerek, daha fazla tam bugday, findik tuketerek ve salatalariniza daha cok semizotu ekleyerek vucudunuza daha cok Omega-3 yagi kazandirabilirsiniz.

*Kisacasi Omega-3 yaglari gercek birer saglik mucizesi. Bu yaglarin her ucunu de vucudunuza dogal yolla mumkun oldugu kadar fazla miktarda kazandirmaya calisin. Gunde 2-3 gram Omega-3 almaniz yeterlidir ve en az 150-160 mg EPA ve DHA tuketmeyi hedeflemek gerekiyor.
*Unutmayin, Omega-3 yaglarini yeterince alamazsaniz urettiginiz hucrelerinizin zarlari yeteri kadar saglam olmaz. Gucsuz, zayif, kalp krizine, kalp ritim bozukluguna, felce, kansere, insulin direncine egilimli hucreler uretirsiniz. Omega-3 yaglarindan faydalanmayi bir aliskanlik haline getirin.

Ispanak (Spinach)

Ispanak Gercegi:

Yillardir, icinde cok demir oldugunu sandigimiz ispanak, aslinda marul ya da diger yesil sebzelerle ayni oranda demir tasiyor diyebiliriz. Kayisi dahi ispanaktan daha fazla demir iceriyor. Bilimsel olarak; gidalarda demir 2 ayri formda bulunur. Bir cesidi vucut tarafindan %30 emilir (bu demir cesidi; kirmizi et, kanatli etleri ve balikta bulunur ).Diger cesit bitkilerde bulunur ve % 2-10 emilim gosterir. Sonuc olarak, etlerden aldiginiz demir vucudunuzda daha fazla emilir ve fayda gorur. Ispanaktaki durum: demir orani yuksek ama emilen demir orani dusuktur. Mecimek ise: ispanaga gore demir orani dusuk, ama yararlanilabilen (emilen) demir orani daha yuksektir.
Ispanak genel olarak iyi bir A, C ve K vitamini kaynagidir. Ayrica; Folat (folik asit), Potasyum, Fosfat, Selenyum ve Demir icerir. Kan yapiminda ve kansizligin olusumu engellemede rol alir. Ispanak guclu olmaniza ve vucudunuzda bulunan zehirli ve toksik maddelerin atilmasinda yardimci olur.

Bakteriler (Bakteria)

Butun bakteriler zararli degildir. Hastalik yapici ve hatta oldurucu etkiye sahip bakterilerin yaninda; yararli bakteriler de vardir.

* Mesela, yogurt yapiminda kullanilan ve sutun yogurda donusumunu gerceklestiren starter kultur olarak kullanilan yogurt bakterileri: Streptecoccus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus
* Peynir yapiminda kullanilan starter kulturlerden bazilari ise: Lactococcus lactis ssp cremoris, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus ve Leuconostoc turevleri.
* Kimi bakterilerde asi veya antibiyotik olarak tip sektorunde insanlara daha saglikli bir hayat sunmak icin kullanilirlar. Bilindigi uzere oldurulmus veya zayiflatilmis bakteriler insan vucuduna enjekte edildiginde, vucut bu bakterilere karsi antikor uretmeye baslar ve bu zayiflatilmis veya olu olan bakterilere karsi bir ustunluk saglar. Bu olaya tip alaninda bagisiklik denmektedir. Vucut gucsuz bakterilere karsi kendini hazirlamis olur ve guclu, saglam bakterilerle karsilastiginda nasil davranmasi gerektigini ogrenmis olur. Bildiginiz gibi gunumuzde de tetanoz ve verem gibi, bir çok hastaligi onlemek için cesitli bakteriler kullanilir ve bir cesit onlem olarak kabul edilirler.
* Yine benzer sekildeki bazi bakteriler tip sektorunde antibiyotik yapiminda kullanilirlar. Streptomycin adi verilen bir bakteri cesidi; Bacitracin, Polymyxin ve Erythromycin adi verilen antibiyotikler uretmektedir. Bu antibiyotikler hastalik onleyici olarak cogu zaman insanlar tarafindan kullanilmaktadir.
* Ayrica yine Clostridium bacterium adi verilen bir bakteri cesidinin fermantasyonu sureci sonunda ortaya cikan butil alkol ve aseton kimya sektorunde çok kullanilan degerli kimyasal maddelerdendir.
* Yine benzer sekilde insan kaninin plazmasinda bulunan Dextran adli yararli bir madde; Leuoconostoc adli bir bakteri tarafindan yapilmaktadir.
* Bazi bakteri turleri; bazi hayvanlarin bagirsaklarinda ozellikle seluloz sindiriminde kullanilmaktadir ve selulozun karbonhidratlarin temel tasi olan glikoza indirgenmesini saglar ve böylece hucreler için gerekli olan enerji de bulunmus olur.
* Eger curukcul bakteriler olmasaydi olu insan bedenleri ve canliligini yitirmis bitki parcaciklari olduklari gibi kalacak ve bunlarin ana organik maddelere donusumu olmayacakti. Boylece karbon dongusunun onemli bir parcasi yerine getirilmemis olacakti. Bu curukcul bakteriler yaptiklari bu parcalama islemiyle ayni zamanda topraklari da beslerler ve verimli hale getirirler.

Yaglar (Fats)

Doymus Yaglar

Doymus yaglar genellikle oda sicakliginda kati halde bulunurlar. Oncelikle hayvansal gidalarda bulunurlar. Tereyagi, sut, krema, ic yagi, et... Bununla birlikte; palm yagi, hindistan cevizi yagi, sebze yaglari ve fistic yagi gibi bitkisel kaynakli gidalarda da bulunabilirler. Bu yaglar kandaki kolestrol miktarini yukseltirler.

Doymamis Yaglar

Doymamis yaglar oda sicakliginda genelde sivi halde bulunurlar. Kaynak olarak bitkisel kaynakli gidalarda bulunurlar. Zeytin, misir ozu yagi, aycicek yagi, fistik ve diger kuruyemislerde bulunur.

*Coklu Doymamis Yaglar

Genellikle oda sicakliginda sivi olurlar. Kandaki kolestrol seviyesini dusurdukleri bilinir. Aycicek yagi, misir ozu yagi ve margarin gibi yaglarda yuksek miktarlarda coklu doymamis yag aside bulunur.

*Tekli Doymamis Yaglar

Oda sicakliginda, hem sivi hem de kati halde bulunabilirler. Hem bitkisel hemde hayvansal kaynakli olabilirler. Zeytin, fistik ve kanola yaglari tekli doymamis yaglar bakimindan zengindir. En saglikli pisirme yaglari; zeytinyagi ve kanola yagidir.

Trans Yag Asitleri

Sivi bitkisel yaglara Hidrojen eklenip, yuksek basinc uygulamasina tabi tutulunca kati hale gecerler. Bu yaglara Gecis Yaglar (Trans Fats) denir. Margarin, nebati yaglar, coreklerde ve diger hamur islerinde bulunurlar.

Saglik Bilgileri (Health Tips)

*** Cig sogan yemek, ya da cignemek, agzinizdaki ve dislerinizdeki bakterileri yok eder.

***Cilekte bulunan bir cesit protein, serotonin hormonuna etki eder ve bu hormone mutluluk hissini arttirir. Ayni zamanda stresi ve istahi azaltir.

***Kullandiginiz kizartma yagini tekrar kullanmayin ve yanmis yiyecekler tuketmeyin. Yanik gidalar ve yanmis yag kanserojen maddeler icerir.

***Domates, guclu bir antioksidan olan likopen deposudur.

***Yogurt, kayisi, erik, zeytinyagi ve papatya cayi kabizligi onlemeye ve kabizligi tedavi etmeye yardimci olur.

***Cay yapraklarinin kaynamis su ile ani temasi, caydaki C vitaminini yok eder ve icindeki mineral degerlerini azaltir. Ayni zamanda kaynamis su, cayin icindeki tanen maddesini parcalar, yok eder ve bu da kansizliga yol acar. Bunu onlemek icin demlige koydugumuz cayi temiz su ile yikiyoruz ya da 1-2 kasik soguk su ile islatiyoruz.

Besin ve Vitamin Degerlerinin Korunmasi (Protection of Nutrition and Vitamin Values)

***C vitamini, havadaki Oksijen, isi ve gunes isigi ile temasindan 30 dakika sonra degerini yitirir. Bardaga doktugunuz meyve sularini ve dilimlediginiz meyveleri bir an once tuketin.Meyve sularinizin kapagini acik birakmayin, isi ve gunes isigindan uzak yerlerde muhafaza edin.

***Brokoliyi pisirmeden tuketmeye calisin. Pisirmek ya da kaynatmak brokolideki vitaminleri ve mineralleri azaltir ya da yok eder.

***Cay yapraklarinin kaynamis su ile ani temasi, caydaki C vitaminini yok eder ve icindeki mineral degerlerini azaltir. Ayni zamanda kaynamis su, cayin icindeki tanen maddesini parcalar, yok eder ve bu da kansizliga yol acar. Bunu onlemek icin demlige koydugumuz cayi temiz su ile yikiyoruz ya da 1-2 kasik soguk su ile islatiyoruz.

***Salatanizi servisten en fazla 30 dakika once dograyin. Dogranan sebzeler, hava ile temas ettikten 30 dakika sonra, ozellikle C vitamini olmak uzere, vitamin kaybina ugrarlar.

***Makarna, eriste gibi gidalarin pisme sularinin dokulmesi besin degerini dusurur. Pilav pisirir gibi, cekecegi kadar su koyarak pisirin, boylece besin degeri daha yuksek makarna tuketmis olursunuz.

***Yumurtayi cig olarak tuketmemelisiniz. Sindirimi zordur, besin zehirlenmesi yapabilir ve B grubu vitaminlerinden biyotin yararli etkisini gosteremez.

***Yumurtayi en fazla 6-8 dakika sureyle haslamalisiniz. Uzun sure haslanan yumurtanin sarisi etrafinda olusan yesil halka, besin degerinin azaldigini gosterir.

***Dondurulmus sebzelerin icerdikleri besin ogelerini maksimum oranda korumak icin pisirmeden once kesinlikle cozundurmemelisiniz.
***Yesil salata ve marulun yapraklarini yikadiktan sonra bicakla keserek dogramak yerine, elinizle koparin. Boylece vitamin kaybini onlemis olursunuz.

Gidalarin Guvenligi (Food Safety)

***Capraz bulasma, zararli bakterilerin; insandan, nesnelerden ya da ortamdan diger ortamlara transferi ya da fiziksel hareketidir. Gida zehirlenmelerinin anahtar faktorudur ve temel kaynaklari: gidalar, insanlar, kullanilan arac gerec ve calisma alanlaridir.
Dikkat etmeniz gereken noktalar:
* Cig gidalara, ozellikle cig etlere dokunduktan sonra ellerinizi iyice yikayin.
* Pismis ve cig/ onceden pisirilmis ve onceden hazirlanan gidalar icin ayri kesme tahtalari ya da ayri gida temas yuzeyleri kullanin.
* Pismis ve cig/ onceden pisirilmis ve onceden hazirlanan gidalar arasinda temas olmamalidir.
* Buyuk kutle halindeki gidalari, tezgah uzerine koymayin.
* Butun arac gerec ve aletler icin dogru sanitasyon prosedurlerini uygulayin.
* Temizlik bezlerinin tek kullanimlik ya da yeterince sanitize oldugundan emin olun.
* Cig ve yemege hazir gidalari ayri muhafaza edin.

***Yuksek riskli gidalar; zararli bakterilerin uredigi ve pisirme gibi bu bakterileri yok eden on uygulama yapilmadan tulketilen ve dolayisiyla kolay bozulan gidalardir.
* Butun pismis kirmizi et ve kanatlilar.
* Sos, et-tavuk suyu ve sandivic malzemelerini iceren pismis etler.
* Sut, krema, yapay krema, sutlu tatlilar ve sut urunleri.
* Pismis yumurta ve yumurta iceren urunler; mayonez gibi
* Kabuklu deniz hayvalari ve diger deniz mahsulleri.
* Pismis pirinc.

***Tarcini sutlaci kaselere doker dokmez koymayin. Cunku; mikroorganizmalar tarcin ve sicak sutlacin temasiyla; yuzeyde hizla ureyecektir. Bu durum gida zehirlenmesine yol acabilir. Tarcini koyarken sutlacin soguduguna ve servisten hemen once olmasina dikkat edin.

***Mikroorganizmalarin gelisme olasiliginin en yuksek oldugu durumlar:
* Oksijen bulunan ya da bulunmayan ortamlar
* -7 ve 70°C civari araligindaki sicakliklarda
* pH 0-11 araliginin yukarisi
* Su aktivitesinin 0.6 dan yuksek oldugu ortamlar (Belli bir gidanin bozulmasi; mikroorganizmalarin o gidadaki ve cevresindeki kosullara uygun olusuna baglidir.)

*** Gida bozulmalarinin belirtileri:
* Kotu kokularin olusumu.
* Gidalar, bakteri populasyonunun artisiyla yapiskan ve sumuksu bir hal alir.
* Gidalar, mikrobiyal gelisme sonucu renk degisimine ugrar.
* Gidalar, bakterilerin asit uretmesi sonucu eksimeye baslar.
* Mayalar ve bakteriler, genelde gas ureterek gidalari etkilerler.

***Dondurulmus balik cozundururken; once dolapta (4C) 12 saat boyunca bekletin. Sonra oda sicakliginda 4-5 saat boyunca cozundurun ve hemen pisirin. Dondurulmus baligi direk oda sicakliginda cozundurmemeye dikkat edin. Cunku bu, hastalik yapici organizmalarin hemen gelismesine ve baligin uzerinde yayilmasina sebep olacaktir.

***Pismis sebzeler buzdolabinda en fazla 4 gun, pismis etler ise 3 gun saklanabilir.

***Pismis ya da cig balik buzdolabinda 2 gunden fazla saklanamaz.

***Buzdolabindaki soguk hava, bakterileri oldurmez sadece onlari durdurur, gelismelerini yavaslatir ve boylece enfeksiyon riskini azaltir.

***Yumurta, sut ve yogurt gibi kolay bozulan besinleri buzdolabinin ust raflarina yerlestirin. Et, balik ve peynir gibi besinlerin uzerlerini aluminyum ya da seffaf folyoyla kapatip orta raflara yerlestirin.

***Kullandiginiz kizartma yagini tekrar kullanmayin ve yanmis yiyecekler tuketmeyin. Yanik gidalar ve yanmis yag kanserojen maddeler icerir.

***Yumurtayi cig olarak tuketmemelisiniz. Sindirimi zordur, besin zehirlenmesi yapabilir ve B grubu vitaminlerinden biyotin yararli etkisini gosteremez.

***Bal, saklama kosullarina dikkat edilmezse sekerlenir ve besin degeri kaybolur. Bu yuzden bal kavanozunu sicak olmayan serin ve karanlik bir yerde saklamak daha iyi olacaktir. Gun isigi alan bal bozulur. Ayrica kavanozun kapagi acik kalirsa nem alir ve tadi acimtrak olur.

***Sert plastik ve cam kesme tahtalari, tahta olanlara gore daha az gozenekli oldugu icin; cig et, kanatli, balik ve denzi urunlerinin kesilip dogranmasi icin daha guvenlidir.
Tahtadan yapilan kesme tahtalari; taze urunler, ekmek, kuru meyve, kuruyemis gibi gidalarin kesiminde kullanilabilir.

***Kesme tahtanizin uzerinde derin cizikler ve kesikler olustuysa, degistirme zamani gelmis demektir. Atin ve yenisini alin.

***Bakteriler 40F (4C) ve 140F (60 C) araliginda hizla urerler. Bu yuzden gidalarin guvenli muhafazasi icin, gidalarinizi bu sicakliklarin altinda ya da ustunde saklamaya calisin.

***Cig kanatli etlerini kestikten ya da parcaladiktan sonra, mutlaka ellerinizi, kullandiginiz bicak, kesme tahtasi ve diger aletleri sicak su ve deterjan ile yikayin. Kullandiginiz aletler tamamen temizlenmeden tekrar kullanmayin. Cig kanatli etlerini koydugunuz tabaklari, pismis kanatlilari koymayin.

Gidalarin Saklanmasi (Storing Food)

***Pismis sebzeler buzdolabinda en fazla 4 gun, pismis etler ise 3 gun saklanabilir.

***Pismis ya da cig balik buzdolabinda 2 gunden fazla saklanamaz.

***Yumurta, sut ve yogurt gibi kolay bozulan besinleri buzdolabinin ust raflarina yerlestirin. Et, balik ve peynir gibi besinlerin uzerlerini aluminyum ya da seffaf folyoyla kapatip orta raflara yerlestirin.

***Pisirdiginiz kurabiyeleri aylarca hazir ikram olarak saklayabilirsiniz. Soguduktan sonra; plastik buzdolabi postelerinde ya da stretch film ile cift kat sarilarak dondurucuda 3 ay saklanabilir. Cozundurmek icin; kurabiyeleri dondurucudan cikarip, poset ya da sargilarindan cikarin. Tek sira halinde duz bir yuzeye yayin ve 15-30 dakika bekletin. Tuketilmeyen kurabiyeleri agzi sikica kapatilmis kaplarda saklayabilirsiniz.

***Kullandiginiz salcalarin bozulmamasini istiyorsaniz uzerini duzleyerek biraz zeytin yagi ilave ederek uzun sure saklayabilirsiniz.

***Konserve gidalar, acildiktan sonra cam kavanozda saklanirsa daha dayanikli ve saglikli olur.

***Bal, saklama kosullarina dikkat edilmezse sekerlenir ve besin degeri kaybolur. Bu yuzden bal kavanozunu sicak olmayan serin ve karanlik bir yerde saklamak daha iyi olacaktir. Gun isigi alan bal bozulur. Ayrica kavanozun kapagi acik kalirsa nem alir ve tadi acimtrak olur.

***Patateslerin burusmasini ve filizlenmesini onlemek icin; patateslerin bulundugu ortama bir elma koyun. Patatesleri daha uzun sure sakladiginizi goreceksiniz.

***Sogani dondurarak saklamanin 3 yolu vardir. Dondurma islemi soganin doku ve yapisini degistirir, bu yuzden dondurulmus sognlar sadece yemek yapiminda kullanilmalidir.
1-Soganlari dograyin ve yagli kagit uzerine koyup, dondurucuda donduktan sonra; alip dondurucu kaplarina ya da torbalarina koyun ve agizlarini kapatin. Bu yontem ile istediginiz zaman istediginiz miktari alip kullanmanizi saglar.
2-Butun sogani dondurmak isterseniz; soyun, yikayin ve plastic buzdolabi posetlerine koyarak dondurun.
3- Ayrica dogranmis soganlari biraz tereyagi ya da siviyagda kavurduktan sonra, sogutup, buzdolabi posetlerinde dondurabilirsiniz.
Kurutma: Soganlari dograyin ve firinin en dusuk isi ayarinda kuruttun. Tamamen kuruyunca (kahverengi olmadan) firindan cikarin. Oda sicakliginda hava almayan kaplarda muhafaza edin.

***Kullandiginiz salcalarin bozulmamasini istiyorsaniz uzerini duzleyerek biraz zeytin yagi ilave ederek uzun sure saklayabilirsiniz.

***Baharatlari muhafaza ederken, her zaman sicak ve nemden uzakta ve hava gecirmeyen kaplarda saklayin. Boylece, baharatlarda nem birikimi onlenerek kuf olusmayacaktir. Ayrica, sicaga maruz kalip gereginden fazla kurumalari onlenecek ve tazelikleri korunmus olacaktir. Direk gunes isigi ve sicak; baharatlarin renginin agarmasina neden olur. Yemeklerinizin lezzetli olmasi icin baharatlarinizin tadini ve rengini koruyun.

***Muzlari muhafa ederken, cok olgun muzlari daha sonradan tatli yapiminda kullanmak icin pure haline getirip dondurabilirsiniz. Eger bunu yapacak zamaniniz yoksa, oldugu gibi soymadan buzluga koyup, dondurun. Kullanacaginiz zaman cozundurun ve kabugunu soyun.

***Tuketemediginiz ekmeklerin atilmasina izin vermeyin. Ekmegi aluminyum folyo ile sarip buzdolabinin alt raflarinda 3 haftaya kadar muhafaza edebilirsiniz. Ayrica, ayni sekilde dondurarak 3 aya yakin uzun bir sure saklayabilirsiniz. Kullanacaginiz zaman cozundurup, firinda ya da mikrodalgada biraz isitirsaniz, taze gibi oldugunu goreceksiniz.

***Rendelenmis kasar peynirini muhafaza etmek icin, peynirin bulundugu kaba 1 tatli kasigi karbonat koyun ve karismasi icin sallayin ve dondurun. Boylece peynir birbirine yapismayacaktir.

*** Tavugun muhafaza edilmesinde; cig tavugu marine ederken kullandiginiz kalan sosu yeni bir daha kullanmayin.Donmus tavugu buzdolabinda cozundurun, oda sicakliginda ya da tezgah uzerinde cozundurmeyin. Eger tavugu 2 gun icinde kullanmayacaksaniz, dondurarak muhafaza edin.

***Kiyma buzdolabinda 1-2 gun muhafaza edilebilir. Eger kiymayi hemen tuketmeyecekseniz, dondurucuda dondurarak 3 ay kadar saklayabilirsiniz.

***Kerevizi taze olarak 2 hafta ya da daha uzun sure saklamak icin, su ile durulayin ve aluminyum folyo ile sarip buz dolabina koyun.

***Elmalarinizi buzdolabinda 2 aya kadar saklayabilirsiniz.

***Sutlerin uzerindeki son kullanma tarihi her zaman biraz tedbirlidir. Eger sutu gerektigi gibi korursaniz, kartonun ya da sisenin uzerindeki tarihten bir hafta sonraya kadar tazeligini yitirmez.

***Kesilmis salataligi saklamak icin, kagit havluya sarin ve bozdolabinin sebze bolumune koyun.

***Domatesleri en etkili koruma yontemi, koyu renkli kagit torba ya da agzi kapali kaptir. Ayrica yanlarina bir elma ya da armut koymak domateslerin olgunlasmasini hizlandirir. Domatesleri tek sira halinde ve saplari uste gelecek sekilde saklayin.

***Peyniri en iyi saklama yolu buzdolabinin alt raflaridir. Sert peynirler, folyo ya da plastik film ile sikica sarilarak buzlukta 2-3 ay muhafaza edilebilir. Yumusak peynirleri dondurmak pek tavsiye edilmez. Beyaz peyniri tuzlu su icinde daha uzun sure saklayabilirsiniz.

***Pismemis makarnayi, sikica sarilmis pakette ya agzi kapali kapta; kuru ve serin yerde saklayin. Yumurta icermeyen makarnayi bu sekilde 3 yil saklayabilir, yumurtali makarnayi ise 2 yil saklayabilirsiniz.

***Cilek ve bogurtlen gibi meyveleri dondurmak kolaydir. Genis tepsiye cilek/bogurtlen/ahududularibiribirine temas etmeyecek sekilde yayin ve buzlukta dondurun. Sonra tepsiden alip, kucuk kaplara aktarin ve tekrar buzluga koyun. Boylece meyveler birbirine yapismayacak vekullanacaginiz zaman istediginiz miktarda alip cozundurebileceksiniz.

***Kerevizi taze olarak saklamak icin; kagit havluyu islatip kerevizin etrafina sarin, sonra uzerinden aluminyum folyo ile sarin. Bu sekilde buzdolabinda 1 ay kadar saklayabilirsiniz.

***Kullanmadiginiz soslari saklarken; buz kaliplarina dokun ve dondurun. Sonra kaliplardan cikarin ve kullanacaginiz miktarlarda buzdolabi posetlerine koyup saklayin. Eger olcerek dondurursaniz, tariflerde kullanacaginiz zaman cozundurmeden direk yemegin icine ilave edebilirsiniz.

***Kurutulmus gidalari saklarken; kapagi siki kapanan her turlu saklama kabi kullanabilirsiniz. Agzini siki kapatabildiginiz plastik torbalari bile kullanabilirsiniz. Kurutulmus gidalari, karanlik ve serin yerde saklayarak oksidasyonu onleyebilirsiniz. Her hafta kuf olusumu olup olmadigi kontrol edin.

***Baliklari taze olarak saklamanin en iyi yolu, baligi cift kat buzdolabi posetine koyup, icini su ile doldururak dondurmaktir. Cozundurdugunuz baligi asla tekrar dondurmayin.

***Bakteriler 40F (4C) ve 140F (60 C) araliginda hizla urerler. Bu yuzden gidalarin guvenli muhafazasi icin, gidalarinizi bu sicakliklarin altinda ya da ustunde saklamaya calisin.

*** Etleri marine ederken, pisirdiginiz etleri, marine ettiginiz ya da cig etleri koydugunuz tabaklara koymayin. Cig etteki bakteriler kolayca pismis ete gecip, besin zehirlenmesine yol acabilir.

***Tuketmediginiz kuruyemisleri, tazeliklerini korumak amaciyla buzdolabinda saklayabilirsiniz.

Tuesday, August 5, 2008

Kanseri Onleyen 6 Gida

Beslenme ve kanser uzerine yapilan butun bilimsel calismalar, icerdikleri fitonutrientler ve diger ozel bilesikler sebebiyle bitkisel kaynakli gidalarin onemini vurguluyor.
Ozellikle asagidaki alti super star olmak uzere, gunde yaklasik bes veya dokuz porsiyon meyve ve sebze tuketimini hedef alin.

Turpgillerden olan karnibahar ve lahana gibi sebzeler kansere karsi savasan ozelliklere sahiptir. Ozellikle brokoli, onemli miktarda sulfurofana sahip olup, bu sayede vucuttaki koruyucu enzimleri cogaltir ve kansere sebep olan kimyasallarin disari atilimina yardim eder. Sulfurofan ayrica tumor gelisimine sebep olan kanser kok hucrelerini yok eder.
Onler: meme, karaciger, akciger, prostat, cilt, mide ve mesane kanserleri

Uzumsu Kucuk-Sulu Meyveler
Uzumsu, kucuk sulu meyvelerin cogu kanseri onleyen fitonutrientler ile doludur.
Kara frambuaz, ozellikle yuksek miktarlarda antociyanin denen fitokimyasallar icerir. Bunlar da kanser olusumunu baslatan ve tumorleri besyelen yeni kilcal damarlarin olusumunu engelleyerek, kanseri engeller. Gunde yarim bardak uzumsu, sulu kucuk meyve tuketimini hedef alin.
Onler: Kolon, cilt, yemek borusu ve agiz kanserleri

Bu sulu meyve, domatese kirmizi rengini veren bir karotenoid olan likopen bakimindan cok zengindir. Likopen, rahim ici kanser hucrelerinin gelismini onler ve en iyi yararlanma sekli; domatesleri pisirerek vucudun likopeni daha iyi absorbe etmesini saglamaktir.
Onler: Akciger, rahim, prostat ve mide kanserleri

Icerdikleri fitosteroller, meme kanserindeki ostrojen reseptorlerini bloke edip, hucrelerin gelisimini onelmektedir. Gunde 4 yemek kasigi (30 gr) ceviz yemeniz tavsiye edilir.
Onler: meme ve prostat kanserleri

Sarimsaktaki fitokimyasallar, mid eve bagisaklaridaki nitrozamin ve karsinojenlerin olusumunu engeller. Bir dis sarimsagi dograyin ya da ezin (ezmek yararli enzimlerin cikmasini saglar) ve pisirdiginiz yemeklerin icine ilave edin.
Onler: meme, kolon, yemek borusu ve mide kanserleri

Siyah ve beyaz fasulyelerin kolon kanserini buyuk olcude azalttigi saptanmistir. Baklagillerin tuketimi, butirat yag asitlerinin yukselmesini ve bu sayede de kanser hucrelerinin gelisiminin engellenmesini saglamaktadir. Kuru baklagiller ozellikle, meme kanserini onlemektedir.
Haftada bir kac defa yarim bardak baklagil tuketmeye calisin.
Onler: meme ve kolon kanserleri